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To exclude the contamination of other tissues or immune cells, immunohistochemistry was performed to confirm the downregulation of TIPE2 in hepatocyte (Fig

To exclude the contamination of other tissues or immune cells, immunohistochemistry was performed to confirm the downregulation of TIPE2 in hepatocyte (Fig. and tumorigenesis in nude mice. In contrast, overexpression of TIPE2 had an opposite effect. Downregulation of TIPE2 by NS5A is associated with genomic DNA instability and HCV-induced HCC development. Thus, TIPE2 may be a new therapeutic target for the treatment of HCV-associated HCC. Alpha-fetoprotein, hepatitis B virus Animals and cells The animal experiments performed in this study were prior approval by the Animal Experimentation Committee of Henan University. Four-week-old male BALB/cA-nu mice were purchased from Beijing HFK Bioscience. All mice received standard diet and water and were treated in accordance with the National Guide for the Care and Use of Laboratory Animals. The cell lines HEK293T, Changliver, and Huh7 cells were maintained in DMEM medium supplemented with 10?% fetal bovine serum, 2?mM l-glutamine, and penicillin (100?units/ml)-streptomycin (100?g/ml). Antibodies and reagents Mouse anti-Chk1, rabbit anti-Chk2, anti-H2AX, anti-phospho-Chk1, anti-phospho-Chk2, and anti -H2AX antibodies were purchased from Cell Signaling Technology (Danvers, USA). Mouse monoclonal anti–actin and anti-FLAG were purchased from Sigma (St. Louis, USA), Sincalide and rabbit anti-TIPE2 was purchased from Boster (Wuhan, China). Puromycin, crystal violet, MTT, DMSO, and bovine serum albumin (BSA) were purchased from Sigma, and DMEM medium and fetal bovine serums were purchased from Gibco (Gran Island, USA). Lentiviral vector pLKO.1, psPAX2, and pMD2.G were obtained from Addgene. Transfection and establishment of stable cell lines For transient transfection, the cells were inoculated overnight and reached to 60C70?% confluence; a certain amount of plasmid DNA was transiently transfected into Sincalide the cells with the X-tremeGENE HP Mouse monoclonal to CD32.4AI3 reacts with an low affinity receptor for aggregated IgG (FcgRII), 40 kD. CD32 molecule is expressed on B cells, monocytes, granulocytes and platelets. This clone also cross-reacts with monocytes, granulocytes and subset of peripheral blood lymphocytes of non-human primates.The reactivity on leukocyte populations is similar to that Obs DNA transfection reagent following a manufacturers protocol (Promega, Madison, USA). The cells were harvested 48?h post-transfection; they were subjected to the indicated experiments. To generate stable cell lines, the Changliver cells were transduced with lentiviral particles comprising either TIPE2 shRNA or scramble shRNA. For ectopic manifestation of TIPE2, Sincalide the Huh7 cells were infected with lentiviral particles expressing TIPE2 cDNA or bare vector. The cells were selected in 2?g/ml puromycin for 2?weeks and were pooled for future study. Cell proliferation and plate colony formation assay For plate colony formation assay, cells were detached and seeded in six-well plates with 500 cells per well in tradition medium. Two weeks later on, visible clone cell clusters appeared. The cells were washed twice with PBS and fixed in 4?% paraformaldehyde for 15?min followed by staining with crystal violet for 20?min. The cells were then washed with PBS and air-dried. The colony is definitely quantified and photographed under microscopy. The colony quantity divided by total cell figures accounts for the colony formation rate. For cell viability, the cells were seeded in 96-well plates at a denseness of 5??103 cells per well, and cell growth curve was measured by MTT assay. DNA damage model in vitro To construct DNA damage cell model, the cells were seeded into 12-well plates; 24?h later on, culture medium was changed with new medium containing hydroxyurea or DMSO at 3?mM and incubated for another 24?h. Cell lysates were then collected for immune blotting analysis. Immunoblotting analysis and co-immunoprecipitation- Cells were lysed with RIPA buffer comprising protease inhibitor cocktail, and protein concentration was identified using bicinchoninic acid reagent (CWBIO, Beijing, China). Equivalent amounts of protein were loaded in each well for electrophoresis followed by transferring onto nitrocellulose filter membrane. After obstructing with 5?% fat-free milk or 5?% BSA, the membranes were incubated with main antibodies immediately at Sincalide 4?C. After washing in Tris-buffered saline and Tween (TBST) buffer for three times, the membranes were incubated with HRP-conjugated.