Analysis was by modified intention to treat. injections of AMG 145 280 mg, 350 mg, or 420 mg, or matching placebo every 4 weeks. Everyone was masked 8-O-Acetyl shanzhiside methyl ester to treatment assignment within the every 2 weeks and every 4 weeks schedules. The primary endpoint was the percentage change in LDL-C concentration from baseline after 12 weeks. Analysis was by altered intention to treat. This study is usually registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, number “type”:”clinical-trial”,”attrs”:”text”:”NCT01380730″,”term_id”:”NCT01380730″NCT01380730. Findings 631 patients with hypercholesterolaemia were randomly assigned to AMG 145 70 mg (n=79), 105 mg (n=79), or 140 mg (n=78), or matching placebo (n=78) every 2 weeks; or AMG 145 280 mg (n=79), 350 mg (n=79), and 420 mg (n=80), and matching placebo (n=79) every 4 weeks. At the end of the dosing interval at week 12, the mean LDL-C concentrations were reduced generally dose dependently by AMG 145 every 2 weeks (ranging from 41.8% to 66.1%; p 0.0001 for each dose placebo) and AMG 145 every 4 weeks (ranging from 41.8% to 50.3%; p 0.0001). No treatment-related serious adverse events occurred. The frequencies of treatment-related adverse events were comparable in the AMG 145 and placebo groups (39 [8%] of 474 11 Rabbit polyclonal to AGBL5 [7%] of 155); none 8-O-Acetyl shanzhiside methyl ester of these events were severe or life-threatening. Interpretation The results suggest that PCSK9 inhibition could be a new model in lipid management. Inhibition of PCSK9 warrants assessment in phase 3 clinical trials. Funding Amgen. Introduction Reduction in LDL-cholesterol (LDL-C) concentrations has been shown to reduce subsequent cardiovascular events, both in primary and secondary prevention populations;1 the most compelling data were from trials of statins.2 However, many patients do not achieve their goal LDL-C concentration due to an insufficient response, intolerance to the drugs, or both,3 and thus are at risk of subsequent events.4 Proprotein convertase subtilisin/kexin type 9 (PCSK9) plays a key part in aiding the intracellular degradation of the LDL receptor (LDL-R) within the hepatocyte lyso-some.5 Loss-of-function mutations in PCSK9 increase the number of LDL-Rs available to recycle to the hepatocyte 8-O-Acetyl shanzhiside methyl ester cell surface, resulting in a reduction in LDL-C concentrations and fewer cardiovascular events.6 AMG 145 is a human monoclonal antibody that binds human PCSK9 with high affinity. In phase 1 studies, it reduced LDL-C concentrations up to 64% versus placebo 1 week after a single dose, and up to 81% with repeated weekly doses.7 We therefore tested the hypothesis that, compared with placebo, 12 weeks of AMG 145 would reduce LDL-C concentrations when used in addition to a statin with or without ezetimibe in patients with hypercholesterolaemia. Methods Patients and study design The design and rationale of LAPLACE-TIMI 57 has been described previously.8 Briefly, the study was a multinational, double-blind, placebo-controlled, dose-ranging trial done in 78 centres in five countries (USA, Canada, Denmark, Hungary, and Czech Republic; appendix pp 3C5). Eligible patients (aged 18C80 years) had a history of hypercholesterolaemia and fasting LDL-C concentration greater than 2.2 mmol/L while on a stable dose of statin (with or without ezetimibe) for at least 4 weeks. Patients with severe comorbidities or taking lipid-lowering drugs other than statin or ezetimibe were ineligible. 8-O-Acetyl shanzhiside methyl ester 8 A complete list of inclusion and exclusion criteria is usually provided in the appendix p 6. After signing informed consent, patients entered a screening phase of up to 6 weeks that included 8-O-Acetyl shanzhiside methyl ester fasting laboratory measurements and a one-time sub cutaneous administration of three 2 mL injections of matching placebo to assess their tolerability. The protocol and amendments were approved by the ethics committee at each centre. An independent data monitoring committee met about every 3 months to review trial conduct, data, and adverse events. Data were provided by an independent biostatistical group external to the TIMI Study Group and Amgen (Thousand.