Following neuropsychological testing, RBANS total scores were calculated at t1 for all study subjects (C) and approximately 18 months later (t2) for all study subjects completing follow-up (D). cellular responses against CMV, levels of inflammatory markers, and cognitive abilities were measured at study entry, with measurement of cognitive abilities repeated 18 months later. CMV-seropositive and -seronegative sub-groups were compared, and relationships between anti-CMV immunity, markers of inflammation, and Fatostatin Hydrobromide cognitive ability were assessed. Twenty-eight of 39 participants were CMV-seropositive, and two had CMV-specific CD8+ T cell responses indicative of CMV immune memory inflation. No significant differences for markers of inflammation or measures of cognitive ability were observed between groups, and cognitive scores changed little over 18 months. Significant correlations between markers of inflammation and cognitive scores with interconnection between anti-CMV antibody levels, fractalkine, cognitive ability, and depression scores suggest areas of focus for future studies. = 0.036), while the magnitude of CMV-specific CD8+ T cell responses negatively correlated with levels of both IL-1 (= 0.031) and TNF- (= 0.049). When only CMV-seropositive individuals were considered, IL-1 levels directly Fatostatin Hydrobromide correlated with TNF- levels (= 0.03), and IL-6 levels directly correlated with fractalkine levels (= 0.001). The magnitude of the CMV-specific humoral immune response directly correlated with levels of fractalkine (= 0.018), and the magnitude of CMV-specific CD8+ T Fatostatin Hydrobromide cell responses negatively correlated with levels of TNF- (= 0.011). Levels of CRP did not correlate with any of the other pro-inflammatory markers. These correlations suggest that a number of independent and interdependent processes, some potentially related to the immune response against CMV, affect the inflammatory milieu in elderly individuals. Open in a separate window Figure 2 Comparison of plasma levels of inflammatory markers in CMV-seropositive and CMV-seronegative study participants. Plasma levels of the pro-inflammatory cytokines (A) IL-1, (B) IL-6, (C) TNF-, (D) the chemokine fractalkine, and (E) acute phase protein CRP were measured by ELISA at the time of study entry for each participant and median values compared between CMV-seropositive and CMV-seronegative groups. Error bars on graphs show median interquartile range for each group. No significant differences between CMV seropositive and Cseronegative groups were observed. MannCWhitney = 0.452, (B) = 0.584, (C) = 0.939, (D) = 0.909, (E) = 0.531. 3.3. Psychological Testing A set of standardized psychological tests, the RBANS, was administered by trained personnel to 39 subjects at or around study entry (t1) and to 34 subjects approximately 18 months after study entry (t2). Scores were collated and medians compared between groups of CMV-seropositive and CMV-seronegative subjects at both time points (Figure 3, Figure 4, Figure 5 and Figure 6). There were no significant differences detected between groups with scores from any of the neuropsychological tests at either time point. Changes observed over the 18 month follow-up period were generally minor and also similar between groups. As a relationship has been proposed between unhealthy aging and inflammation, we assessed correlations between levels of pro-inflammatory markers and scores obtained in the different categories of standardized testing. Age was inversely correlated with levels of IL-1 (= Fatostatin Hydrobromide 0.01) and TNF- (= 0.031), but directly correlated with Fatostatin Hydrobromide fractalkine levels (= 0.0039). At t1, TNF- levels correlated directly with RBANS total (= 0.031), immediate memory (ImMem) (= 0.006), visuospatial/constructional (V/C) (= 0.022), and delayed memory (DeMem) scores (= 0.025). In contrast, fractalkine levels correlated inversely with ImMem scores (= 0.01). At time 2, there were direct correlations of TNF- levels with RBANS total (= 0.026), language (= 0.025), Mouse monoclonal to Mcherry Tag. mCherry is an engineered derivative of one of a family of proteins originally isolated from Cnidarians,jelly fish,sea anemones and corals). The mCherry protein was derived ruom DsRed,ared fluorescent protein from socalled disc corals of the genus Discosoma. and DeMem scores (= 0.02). Fractalkine levels correlated inversely with RBANS total (= 0.0374), ImMem (= 0.0145), and DeMem scores (= 0.0196). When only CMV-seropositive subjects were considered, IL-1 levels correlated inversely (= 0.043), and fractalkine levels correlated directly with age (= 0.025). TNF- levels correlated directly with RBANS total (= 0.049) and ImMem scores (= 0.005) at t1.