Synthesis of 13-(aryl)-9,10-dihydro-9,10-[3,4]epipyrroloanthracene-12,14-diones (4, 4a-4y) Maleic anhydride-anthracene cycloadduct 16a or 16b (0.3C0.5?mmol), and the appropriate 3- or 4-substituted aniline (1.2C1.5 eq) were stirred under reflux in glacial acetic acid (10?mL) between 1 and 5?h then cooled to room temperature. and cervical cancers . S100P binds the receptor for advanced glycation end-products (RAGE) extracellularly  and has a number of intracellular binding targets, including ezrin-palladin, integrin 7 and the not yet fully characterized S100P binding partner (S100PBP) , promoting a number of pathways for cell survival, proliferation, migration, and invasion . The protein has shown some promise as a druggable target, with S100Ps cancer-promoting BMS-707035 effects being suppressed through siRNA silencing  and small molecule downregulation of S100P expression . Direct inhibition of S100P function has been achieved by use of a monoclonal antibody  and with the anti-allergy drug cromolyn 1 , indicating the possibility for the development of small molecules to directly target S100P. Cromolyn has been shown to bind to S100P and inhibit its binding to RAGE . Cromolyn is, however, not likely to be a viable chemotherapeutic agent due to its low potency, lack of selectivity and low bioavailability. A series of cromolyn analogs have demonstrated some increased potency . However, to date there has not been any reported progress in developing more potent and selective drug-like small molecule inhibitors of Rabbit Polyclonal to ZC3H7B S100P, unrelated to cromolyn. Virtual screening is an methodology used in drug discovery and development projects to streamline and optimise candidate selection. It achieves this by exploiting computational models and algorithms which aim to accurately predict which molecules are likely to bind well to a biological target of therapeutic interest (and hence elicit an appropriate therapeutic response) [, , ]. Two experimental structures of S100P exist in the RCSB Protein Data Bank (PDB) as an X-ray BMS-707035 crystal structure (PDB Accession Code 1J55) and an NMR ensemble (PDB Accession code 1OZO). The former is resolved as a 2?? monomer with bound calcium ions but with residues 46C51 and 95 missing . The NMR ensemble on the other hand contains 16 conformers that exist as dimers but with no bound calcium ions . There are also three mutations in the ensemble compared to the native protein; T6A, C85S, and A92T. Using the available experimental information on cromolyn binding and the experimental S100P structures, this study employed methods to identify potential binding pockets in the NMR ensemble of S100P, which could accommodate cromolyn, and to generate a pharmacophore model for S100P. Subsequent virtual screening of lead-like databases identified hits C structurally distinct from cromolyn C that show promise as inhibitors of S100Ps tumor-promoting mechanisms and therefore potentially as chemotherapeutic agents for PDAC. Here, we report our generated pharmacophore, the results of the virtual screening of drug-like databases and the effects of selected hit compounds in protein and cell-based assays of S100P inhibition, and the associated functional effects. 2.?Results and discussion 2.1. modeling and virtual screening Conformer number 15 in the NMR ensemble of S100P (1OZO) was identified as the most suitable structure BMS-707035 BMS-707035 for beginning drug discovery studies. Four different pocket detecting algorithms C Fpocket , Pocket-Finder , Q-SiteFinder  and MOE Site-Finder (Chemical Computing Group BMS-707035 Inc.)  C independently identified a pocket at the S100P dimeric interface of this conformer that was large enough to bind cromolyn. This model coincidentally happens to be most representative model of 1OZO according to the authors who resolved the NMR ensemble . The residues making up the pocket were located on both chains of the homodimer. Limitations of the pocket detection algorithms resulted in the pocket at the dimeric interface being resolved as two separate binding sites. The larger of the two pockets has a volume of 349??3 (Q-SiteFinder) with residues M1, T2, E5, T6, M8, G9, I12, F71, S72, and I75 from chain A, and F44, V78, A79, A80, I81, T82, S83, A84, C85, H86, K87, Y88, F89, K91, A92, G93, L94, and K95 from chain B contributing to the pocket surface. The smaller pocket is more buried than the first and has a volume of 198??3 with residues G9, I11, I12, D13, F15, S16, S19, S21, Q26, F71,.